Adult neurogenesis and functional

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Adult neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells in the adult. This process is different from the embryonic development of neurogenesis. In most mammals, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain: [3].

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Skip to search form Skip to main content. Neuronal responses to a changing environment can occur at the level of molecules, spines, dendrites, axons and, with processes of adult neurogenesis, at the level of entire cells. Neurogenesis definitely occurs in two regions of the adult brain: the subventricular zone SVZ lining the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone SGZ of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus.

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Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair View all 19 Articles. The finding that new neurons are born and become integrated into a mature circuitry throughout life has challenged and subsequently reshaped our understanding of neural plasticity in the adult mammalian brain. It is now widely accepted that neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system occurs in multiple brain regions within the rodent brain, including the subventricular zone SVZ of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone SGZ of the dentate gyrus DG.

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Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAsand diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains.

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Biology Bulletin Reviews. A half century of studying the neurogenesis of the adult brain has produced much evidence for an endogenous conversion of neural stem cells. Yet the idea receives increasing criticism, in addition to the many positive comments.

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About Functional Neurogenesis This site is centered around the function of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, including discussion of scientific research papers, methods and protocols, and other trends or observations about the field. However, since we cannot truly understand the function of adult hippocampal neurogenesis without also studying behavior, plasticity, development etc. Functional Neurogenesis is driven by the fact that there are many great websites and blogs devoted to neuroscience, but there are hardly any devoted to specialized disciplines, limiting discussion to meetings, email, and the slow process of peer-review publishing.

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Since then, neurogenesis has also been found to occur in the hippocampi of adult humans, and more recently is has been confirmed to occur in the amygdala. Newborn neurons resulting from adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus play crucial roles in regulating mood, memory and spatial learning. Research on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus suggests that different factors can modulate adult neurogenesis. Conversely, depression has been found to decrease neurogenesis, and adult neurogenesis has also been shown to decline with age.

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The formation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system CNS has been recognized as one of the major findings in neuroanatomical research. The hippocampal formation HFone of the main targets of these investigations, holds a neurogenic niche widely recognized among several mammalian species and whose existence in the human brain has sparked controversy and extensive debate. Many cellular features from this region emphasize that hippocampal neurogenesis suffers changes with normal aging and, among regulatory factors, physical exercise and chronic stress provoke opposite effects on cell proliferation, maturation and survival.

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